Quality Assurance (QA) of medical diagnostic x-ray equipment means systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence to the end-user(s) that a medical diagnostic x-ray equipment will perform satisfactory in compliance with safety standards specified by the Competent Authority.
The goal of QA Program is to ensure the accuracy of the diagnosis.
The minimum radiation dose should be delivered to the patient to achieve the objective of the diagnostic or interventional procedures.
QA program begins with the performance evaluation of diagnostic x-ray equipment at the manufacturing stage and then acceptance testing after the installation of X-ray equipment at user’s institution(s) to ensure its conformity with the specifications.
The QA tests should be carried out thereafter at regular intervals (periodicity-once in two years) and after repairs of the equipment or when equipment malfunction is suspected.
Objective of Quality Assurance
Optimum image quality of radiological procedures with minimum possible dose to the patient(s).
Why QA in Diagnostic Radiology?
To get calibrate all the exposure parameters, to check functional performance of X-ray equipment and radiation safety around the X-ray installation, QA checks are necessary for every diagnostic X-ray equipment. In other words, to obtain the optimum quality diagnostic information at the lowest radiation risk to the patient, QA of diagnostic X-ray equipment is necessary.
Quality Assurance Test
The routine QA tests are necessary to ensure that the functional performance of the equipment is like its baseline values and within the tolerance values as specified by regulatory body.
These tests should be performed by qualified service engineer(s) at user institution(s).
These tests should be performed at regular intervals (once in two years) and at major repairs of X-ray equipment.
Quality Assurance Tests for Diagnostic X-ray Equipment
Congruence of radiation and optical fields
Central beam alignment
Effective Focal spot size measurement
Accuracy of Accelerating Tube Potential
Linearity of radiation output
Reproducibility of radiation output
Radiation leakage through tube housing
Exposure rate at tabletop
Fluoroscopic image quality parameters
Parameters affecting image quality
Effective Focal Spot Size
Leakage from tube housing